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Types fo Eye Injuries - Symptoms & First aid

Types of eye injuries
The eye is extremely sensitive, delicate and susceptible to infection, so all injuries are potentially serious. Medical aid should be given as soon as possible to prevent permanent damage.

Injuries to the eye can be caused by chemical and heat burns, flash burn, any scratch-wound or a foreign body.

Chemical and heat burns
First aid treatment is needed immediately for burns from chemicals, such as acids and caustic soda. Burns may be caused by the flash from a Diwali cracker or an arc welder.

Signs and symptoms
  • Pain
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Severe watering of eyes
  • Reddened eyeballs
  • Swollen eyelids
  • In case of a flash burn, a sensation of grit under the eyelids.
First aid
  • Wash your hands properly before handling the patient’s eye.
  • Open the affected eyelids gently with your fingers.
  • Flush the eye gently with running, cool water for at least 20 minutes.
  • Apply a light, sterile dressing or eye pad to the eye.
  • Do not flush with water in case of flash burns, instead apply a clean dressing or an eye pad.
  • Seek medical aid immediately.
Foreign bodies
Any foreign body such as an eyelash, dust or other small particle can cause considerable discomfort to the eye.

Signs and symptoms
  • Gritty feeling
  • Pain and irritation
  • Watering of the eye
  • Redness of the eye
  • Partially or completely closed eye
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Twitching eyelid
First aid
  • Do not attempt to remove a surface object from any part of the eye other than the white part or the eyelids.
  • Also do not try to remove the object if it is embedded in the eye.
  • Do not rub the eye.
  • Ask the person to look up. Gently hold the eyelids apart and try to remove the object, if visible, with the corner of a clean, moistened cloth.
  • If this does not rid the eye of the object, hold the eyelids apart and flush the eye gently with clean water.
Black eye
A severe blow or hit to the eye area may cause bruises and internal bleeding.

First aid
  • Check to see that the eye itself is not injured.
  • Apply an ice pack to the affected area.
  • Do not apply ice directly to the eye.
  • If the eye swells and closes, seek medical advice.
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